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Conjugating the Weak Verb
Using the Verb
Auxiliary Verbs
Strong and Irregular Verbs
Inseperable and Seperable Verbs
Modal Auxiliaries
The Subjunctive and Imperative
Adverbs
Particles

Auch | Denn | Doch | Eben | Eigentlich | Etwa | Ja | Mal | Nämlich | Noch | Nur | Schon | Wohl

To finish the verbs we will look at particles which are often called flavoring words because they really have no meaning, but make the sentence more appealing to the ear. They add a sense to the sentence, make it sound more personal and less bleak, rather than adverbs which simply modify the sentence.
auch:
Corresponds with English's -ever (whoever, whatever, or sometimes however):
Wer es auch sein mag, ich kann ihn jetzt nicht sprechen. - Whoever it may be, I can't talk to him now.

It can have the meaning of even:
Auch ein Kind kann das begreifen. - Even a child can understand that.

With a negative it can mean either, neither, or nor:
Er darf nicht gehen - du auch nicht. - He can't go - nor can you.

Often it needs not translation or may mean really:
Er scheint intelligent zu sein. Das ist er auch. - He seems intelligent. He is too.
Was hätte es auch für einen Sinn gehabt? - What would have been the point of it?
Er hat es vorausgesagt, und es ist auch geschehen. - He predicted it, and it really happened.
denn:
Inserted into a question it implies interest or makes it less abrubt:
Wieso denn? - How so?
Was ist denn los? - Whatever's the matter?

Used to intensify suggestions, commands, etc:
Also denn! - Come on then!
Komm herein denn! - Come on in!

Often it needs no translation:
Was halten Sie denn davon? - What do you think of it?
Ist es denn wirklich wahr? - Is it really true?

Denn doch can be used to express indignation or protest:
Das geht denn doch zu weit! - That's going too far!
Das ist denn doch unerhört. - That really is scandalous!
doch:
Gives an affirmative response where a negative one would be expected:
Er war nicht zu Hause? Doch! - Wasn't he at home? Yes, he was!
Das kann ich mir nicht leisten. Doch! - I can't afford that! Yes, you can!

Intensifies imperatives, often adding a pleading tone:
Regen Sie sich doch nicht so auf! - Please don't get so excited!
Nehmen Sie doch Platzt! - Don't take a seat!

Used to contradict or correct the previous thing that was said:
Es macht doch etwas aus. - But it doesn't matter.
Er wird doch kommen. - Yes he will come.

Can also add a sense of if only:
Hättest du es mir doch gesagt! - If only you had told me!
Wenn er doch käme! - If only he would come!
eben:
Usually means just, exactly, or precisely:
Das wollte ich eben sagen. - I was just going to say that.
Er ist eben angekommen. - He has just this moment arrived.
Es ist nicht eben angenehm. - It's not exactly pleasant.

Sometimes it needs no translation or may mean simply:
Er hat es eben nicht gewußt. - He simply didn't know it.
Man muß das Leben nehmen, wie es eben ist. - One must take life as it is.
Eben never means even which is sogar or selbst.
eigentlich:
Means actually, in reality, or even tell me:
Was ist eigentlich mit ihm los? - What is actually the matter with him?
Wir wollten eigentlich nach Bonn. - We were really intending to go to Bonn.
Ist er eigentlich krank? - Tell me, is he ill?

Sort of a padding particle which removes any brusqueness from a question:
Wieviel Leute hast du eigentlich eingeladen. - How many people did you actually ask?
etwa:
Can imply a certain reluctance or even incredulity towards the interlocutor:
Wollen Sie etwa behaupten...? - Do you mean to tell me...?
Sie wollen ihn doch nicht etwa verteidigen? - You don't mean to defend him, do you?

Can also mean perhaps, or by chance:
Ist er etwa verreist? - Can he be away?
Kennen Sie ihn etwa? - Do you happen to know him?
ja:
Has a wide range of English equivalents - indeed, of course, certainly, to be sure, you know, after all, don't you see, why, and surely:
Da ist ja Tante Irmgard! - Why, there's Aunt Irmgard!
Ich kann es ja versuchen... - I can try, of course,...

Most commonly it gives a tone of reassurance:
Der Hund beißt ja nicht. - The dog doesn't bite.
Tu das ja nicht. - Mind you don't do that!
Das ist es ja eben. - That's just the point!
Er soll sich ja nicht denken, daß... - He'd better not think that...
mal:
Usually left untranslated, it adds a pleasant informality of tone; nicht (ein)mal is not even:
Sie wollte mich nicht einmal sehen. - She wouldn't even see me.
Er kann nicht mal das einfachste Problem lösen. - He can't even solve the simplest problem.
Mal sehen! - Let's have a look!
Moment mal! - Just wait a minute!
nämlich:
In addition to its primary meaning it also can mean you see:
Er ist nämlich etwas kurzsichtig. - He's rather shortsighted, you see.
Ich muß mich beeilen, ich habe nämlich noch vieles zu erledigen. - I must rush, I've a lot to attend to, you see.
noch:
In addition to its meanings - yet, still, another, or even - it indicates an additional action, whether performed or not:
Was möchten Sie sich noch ansehen? - What else would you like to see?
Sonst noch etwas? - Anything else?
nur:
In addition to meaning only it may have an intensifying force:
Das macht es nur noch schlimmer. - That makes it even worse.
Nur nicht böse! - Don't be angry!
schon:
In addition to meaning already it is used to reassure:
Vati wird schon kommen. - Daddy will come, I'm sure.
Das stimmt schon, aber... - That's quite true, but...
wohl:
It expects agreement, like presumably or I suppose:
Du weißt wohl, daß er schon weg ist. - I suppose you know he's already left.
Er hat wohl den Zug verpaßt. - He has presumably missed the train.
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