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Conjugating the Weak Verb
Using the Verb
Auxiliary Verbs
Strong and Irregular Verbs
Inseperable and Seperable Verbs
Modal Auxiliaries
The Subjunctive and Imperative

Present Subjunctive | Simple Past Subjunctive | Modals Present Subjunctive | Persistent -e | Compound Tenses | Perfect Subjunctive | Pluperfect Subjunctive | Future Subjunctive | Conditional Subjunctive | Direct Speech | Indirect Speech | Expressing a Wish or Instruction | Three Conditional Clause Sequences | Improbable Condition | Impossible Condition | Open Condition | | Remember This | Imperative Mood | Wir and Sie Imperative | Du and Ihr Imperative |

All of the verb tenses we have looked at so far have been things that already happened (simple, perfect, and pluperfect), something that is happening (present), and something that will happen (future and conditional). These are all known as the indicative mood which means that it is fact. Now we will look at the subjunctive mood which is the opposite of the factual imperative, but deals with the unreality. Also we will look at the imperative mood which deals with instructions or commands.
Present Subjunctive:
haben sein machen
ich habe ich sei ich mache
du habest du sei(e)st du machest
er/sie/es habe er/sie/es sei er/sie/es mache
wir haben wir seien wir machen
ihr habet ihr seiet ihr machet
sie haben sie seien sie machen
Sie haben Sie seien Sie machen

Simple Past Subjunctive:
haben sein machen
ich hätte ich wäre ich machte
du hättest du wär(e)st du machtest
er/sie/es hätte er/sie/es wäre er/sie/es machte
wir hätten wir wären wir machten
ihr hättet ihr wäret ihr machtet
sie hätten sie wären sie machten
Sie hätten Sie wären Sie machten
The present tense of the modals is less frequently met:
ich könne, ich dürfe, ich möge, ich müsse, ich solle, and ich wolle
Note the persistent -e:
er habe, er mache...
Also note that the simple past subjunctive of regular weak verbs is the same as that of the indicative simple past.
Strong verbs with the vowels a, o, or u in the stem of the simple past modify that vowel in the simple past subjunctive:
sprache - spräche
floge - flöge
Compound tenses are formed by adding the past participle or the infinitive or even both to the auxiliary as in the indicative mood:
Perfect Subjunctive:
er habe gesprochen
er sei gekommen
Pluperfect Subjunctive:
er hätte gewartet
er wäre gegangen
Future Subjunctive:
er werde erwartet
Conditional Subjunctive:
er würde gehabt haben
The most common form of all of these is the simple past of werden - würde - which forms the indicative conditional tense.
Direct Speech does not use subjunctive:
Sie sagte: "Das Baby hat mein Buch zerrissen." - She says "The baby has torn up my book."
Er sagte: "Ich werde ihm schreiben. - He said "I shall write to him."
The subjunctive is used frequently with reported or indirect speech:
Indirect Speech: the tense of the subjunctive in indirect speech must be the same as that of the original direct speech. The present subjunctive should be used in indirect speech:
Sie sagte, das Baby habe ihr Buch zerrissen. - She said the baby had torn up her book.
Er sagte, er werde ihm schreiben. - He said he will write to him.
Subjunctive is also used sometimes in main clauses expressing a wish or instruction:
Es lebe die Königin! - Long live the Queen!
Gott sei Dank! - Thank heavens/God!
Gott behüte! - God forbid!
Man nehme einen Liter Milch, 4 Eier... - Take one liter of milk, four eggs...
There are three cases in which the sujunctive is used in certain conditional clause sequences:
If the condition is improbable (English uses would), the if clause will be in the simple past and the main clause will be in the conditional or simple past subjunctive:
Wenn ich nur Zeit hätte, würde ich viel lieber mit dem Zug fahren. - If only I had time, I should much rather travel by train.
(b) if the condition is impossible the if clause will be in the pluperfect subjunctive and the main clause will be in the pluperfect subjunctive or the conditional pefect:
Wenn wir letztes Jahr gekommen wären, hätten wir es gesehen.
Wenn wir letztes Jahr gekommen wären, würden wir es gesehen haben. - If we had come last year we would have seen it.
(c) if the condition is an open one (not containing would or would have both verbs will be indicative:
Wenn wir jetzt losfahren, werden wir um acht Uhr in Köln sein. - If we set off now, we shall be in Cologne at eight o'clock.
The subjunctive is also used in expressions of wishing, believing, intending, doubting, commanding, advising, requesting, and urging:
Ich hätte gern ein neues Auto. - I should like to have a new car.
Er glaubte, es sei seine Tochter. - He believed it was his daughter.
Always remember this:
Subjunctive: the hypothetical, uncertain, or the supposed.
Ich fragte ihn, ob er krank sei. - I asked him if he were ill.
Indicative: the certain, fact, or definite knowledge
Er fragte mich, ob ich krank bin. - He asked me if I were ill.
Imperative Mood: this has to do with giving commands or instructions. This also includes requests.
Two of the four forms of the imperative are the wir and Sie forms. With these you simply switch the verb and the pronoun:
Gehen wir nach Hause! - Let's go home!
Bitte, setzen Sie sich! - Please sit down!
For the familiar du and ihr forms you simply omit the pronoun:
Kinder, bringt eure Hefte her! - Children, bring your exercise books here!
add an -e to the verb stem to form the du form:
Fliege, mein Gesang, zur Geliebten! - Fly, my song, to the beloved.
In speech the -e is usually omitted:
Mutti, bring' mir meine Schuhe! - Mommy, bring me my shoes!
Strong verbs which change their verb stem from an e to an i or ie in the present tense simply drop the -st:
Nimm dein Buch zu Vati. - Take your book to Daddy!
Sieh den schönen Vogel dort! - Look at the lovely bird there!
Gib mir die Hand! - Give me your hand!
Lesson Eighteen - Adverbs -->